In 1973 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) established the Goldwater Rule, which states "it is unethical for a psychiatrist to offer a professional opinion unless he or she has conducted an examination and has been granted proper authorization for such a statement."
In the past several years, the United States has struggled to respond to viral outbreaks, such as Ebola and Zika. There is now an awareness of the need to rapidly develop vaccines and treatments for epidemics that can quickly spread from country to country. But questions remain as how to best co
Spencer Hey, Alex John London, and Charles Weijer argue that there is no better framework for justifying patient participation in research. But Annette Rid and Franklin Miller say that it is a mistake to require clinical research ethics to align with the norms of clinical practice.